Showing 1 - 3 of 3 annotations in the genre "History of Medicine"

Summary:

In 1902, an unusual structure was erected on South Dakota’s windswept prairies. It was not a silo, farmhouse, or barn—buildings that would be perfectly commonplace in that corner of the state. This conspicuously odd edifice, a “two-story building, with its jasper granite foundations,” was called the Canton Asylum for Insane Indians, a first-of-its-kind and federally managed institution based outside of Canton, South Dakota (Joinson 24). The asylum, which operated from 1902 to 1934, was designed to incarcerate and treat Indigenous peoples deemed ‘mad’ by powerful political authorities, such as reservation superintendents and the Bureau of Indian Affairs. According to the historian and disability studies scholar, Susan Burch, the facility “ultimately held four hundred men, women, and children from seventeen states and nearly fifty tribal nations.”

In Vanished in Hiawatha: The Story of the Canton Asylum for Insane Indians, Carla Joinson provides an incisive institutional history of the Canton Asylum, examining the political motivations for its establishment, its different periods of (mis)management, and, ultimately, its demise in the early 1930s due to inspection findings and Indigenous affairs advocacy spurred by John Collier. In writing the book, Joinson seeks to answer her chief research question: “why an institution like this asylum could exist for so many years, and what made it tick as a viable part of the Interior Department” (2). Her research explores the mechanics of institutional longevity, specifically how, despite government inspection reports that revealed appalling evidence of neglect and abuse, the facility remained in operation for over three decades. Joinson’s book also corroborates the staggering fact that many of the asylum’s patients were not, in fact, ‘insane,’ but sent to the institution only so that the federal government could detain and surveil people who may have experienced difficulties with reservation authorities back home. Other Indigenous peoples, such as those with epilepsy and ‘feeblemindedness,’ were also deemed ‘mad’ and in need of medical detention. Many instances of abuse are chronicled: unhygienic conditions, patient restraint, fraudulent diagnoses and misdiagnoses, suicide, and failure to quarantine tubercular patients. Joinson also unearths decades-long dysfunction among the facility’s administration: staff backbiting and high turnover rates, lack of medical treatment, poor medical training and recordkeeping, and refusal to employ translators to communicate with Indigenous patients and understand their different cultures. Vanished in Hiawatha documents that Canton’s patients suffered years of neglect, and those who would have potentially benefitted from psychiatric treatment never received it because the facility was little more than a rural prison for unwanted, troublesome, and chronically ill Indigenous peoples.

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Editing Humanity

Davies, Kevin

Last Updated: Jun-28-2022
Annotated by:
Coulehan, Jack

Primary Category: Literature / Nonfiction

Genre: History of Medicine

Summary:

Editing Humanity explores the history, biology, sociology, and ethical import of CRISPR (“clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats”), the major new DNA technology indicated in the book’s subtitle, “The CRISPR Revolution and the New Era of Genome Editing.”  Using CRISPR, researchers can manipulate the DNA of animals, plants and microorganisms with extremely high precision. In particular, scientists now have the potential to customize the human genome.  

What is CRISPR? To quote Davies, “CRISPR is a small subsection of the bacterial genome that stores snippets of captured viral code for future reference, each viral fragment (or spacer) neatly separated by an identical repetitive DNA sequence.” (p. 23) When the cell is reattacked by a virus, an RNA copy of that virus’ stored “signature” forms a DNA-splitting complex that destroys the incoming virus. In 2012, Jennifer Doudna, of the University of California, Berkeley, and Emmanuelle Charpentier, of the Max Planck Institute, Berlin, demonstrated that CRISPR could be engineered to edit any gene. One could, for example, replace a disease-causing mutation in any DNA segment with the healthy variant, thus preventing genetic disease.  

The author, Kevin Davies is a geneticist and science writer whose previous books include Cracking the Genome and DNA: The Story of the Genetic Revolution.  In Editing Humanity, he discusses an array of actual and potential applications of CRISPR technology, including human disease prevention by altering susceptibility of animal vectors, improving farm productivity, and even resurrecting extinct species. However, the most powerful and controversial topic is genetic manipulation of the human embryo. Davies devotes several chapters to the cautionary tale of the young Chinese scientist He Jiankui who engineered the world’s first gene-edited babies, and the scandal and disgrace that followed. (He was convicted in China of “illegal medical practice” and sentenced to prison.)

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Annotated by:
Coulehan, Jack

Primary Category: Literature / Nonfiction

Genre: History of Medicine

Summary:

The Invention of Medicine is both a scholarly history of early Greek medicine and a compelling mystery story. The “From Homer to Hippocrates” discussion (about 70 pages) is merely a prelude to the author’s main project, which is a careful analysis of the books attributed to Hippocrates of Cos. As a group, they have been associated with Hippocrates at least since the scholar Baccheios of Alexandra, writing in the 280s BCE, attributed them to him. The Roman physician Galen (about 170 CE) considered them products of a Hippocratic “school,” but believed they were written by many different authors, including in some cases, the great Hippocrates himself.  

The book’s highpoint is the author’s carefully reasoned hypothesis that the historical Hippocrates wrote the texts we now know as books 1 and 3 of the Epidemics, based on his practice experience in Thasos between 471 and 467 BCE. Other parts of the Epidemics were written by physicians up to several generations later who emulated Hippocrates’ naturalistic approach. The works identified as the “Hippocratic corpus” were grouped together as early as the 280s BCE as representing the school of Hippocrates because of their naturalistic, pragmatic, and ethical contents,  

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