Art and Medicine

INSTITUTION: New York University School of Medicine

COURSE DIRECTOR:

Felice Aull, Ph.D., MA

Adjunct Associate Professor of Medicine

ENROLLMENT: medicine; elective

SEMESTER:

Week of February 10, 2014

2:00-4:30 pm, Mon, Wed, Fri

COURSE DESCRIPTION:

Art Images and Reading

Most of the course images are available online, URLs included below. In class they will be projected as PowerPoint images for discussion. When you look at an image, what things stand out most to you? What do you notice secondarily? What is your emotional response to the image? What is your aesthetic response? Take notes of your responses before reading about the works, bring to seminar sessions.

  1. To get the most out of the first session on Monday, some advance reading is advised:
    1. On loan to you is the book by Robert Pope, Illness and Healing: Images of Cancer. Read about Robert Pope and the book in the NYU Literature, Arts, and Medicine Database: http://litmed.med.nyu.edu/Annotation?action=view&annid=10390. Browse the book, as indicated on page 5 of this syllabus.
    2. Read the handout, "Childhood and Adolescence of Edvard Munch". Judith M. Stillion. In Grief and the Healing Arts. Ed. Sandra L. Bertman (Amityville, NY: Baywood Publishing) 1999. pp 291-295.
  2. The graphic memoir by David Small, Stitches is available to you on loan. We will discuss it on the last day, Friday, Feb. 14. I recommend you read it over the course of the week.
  3. Other-mostly short-readings, available as handouts or online, are interspersed throughout the syllabus, indicated, in bold type. They are listed on the next page as well, in order of discussion.
  4. An essay of 800-1000 words is due at the end of the week. Focus on one or two paintings or photos that were not discussed in class, or aspects of the Robert Pope book or Stitches not covered in class. There are optional web sites in the syllabus or you may find other art sites that interest you. The image(s) chosen should be accessible on line as a clear image, with URL included, or as a jpg attachment. Describe the image and discuss the impact of the image on you from your perspective as a beginning physician, your training, your goals as a physician; an illness experience from the point of view of a patient, relative, friend, or yourself; or from a social justice perspective; or from some other aspect of healthcare and/or society.

Alternative: If you prefer, do a drawing or graphic sequence that deals with any of the above topics. Discuss in words (about 300) what you are trying to present with images.

 

Reading List

For Discussion on Monday

Francisco Goya. Of What Will He Die? (1796-97) Read about the work in the NYU Literature, Arts, and Medicine Database: http://litmed.med.nyu.edu/Annotation?action=view&annid=10319

Francisco Goya. Self-portrait with Dr. ArrietaA (1820) https://collections.artsmia.org/index.php?page=detail&id=1226

Robert Pope. Illness and Healing: Images of Cancer (Hantsport, Nova Scotia: Lancelot Press, 1991, 1995)

Read about Robert Pope and the book in the NYU Literature, Arts, and Medicine Database: http://litmed.med.nyu.edu/Annotation?action=view&annid=10390

Browse the book, as indicated on page 5. (book on loan)

"Childhood and Adolescence of Edvard Munch". Judith M. Stillion. In Grief and the Healing Arts. Ed. Sandra L. Bertman (Amityville, NY: Baywood Publihing) 1999. pp 291-295. (handout)

Excerpts (handout) from Epileptic. David B. (New York: Pantheon) 2005

 

For Discussion on Wednesday

Excerpts from Chapters 2 (pp 36-51) and 3 (pp 60-69, 81-84) of Susan Wendell’s book, The Rejected Body: Feminist Philosophical Reflections on Disability (New York: Routledge) 1996 (handout)

pages 3, 4 from Frida Kahlo: The Paintings. Hayden Herrera. (New York: Perennial) 2002

pages 96-99 and pages 101-104 from Imaging Herselves: Frida Kahlo’s Poetics of Identity and Fragmentation. Gannit Ankori. (Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press) 2002 (handouts)

Laura Ferguson blog, "Toward a New Aesthetic of the Body."

http://medhum.med.nyu.edu/blog/?p=63

"Looking at the Dying Patient: The Ferdinand Hodler Paintings of Valentine Gode-Darel" by Bernhard C. Pestalozzi: http://jco.ascopubs.org/content/20/7/1948.full

 

For Discussion on Friday

David Small. Stitches: A Memoir (New York: W. W. Norton) 2009. 324 pp. (book on loan)

 

Monday, Feb. 10

Representations of Physicians

How would you characterize these various doctors? How do they interact with other figures in the paintings?

 

Rembrandt. The Anatomy Lesson of Nicolaes TulpA (1632)

(Rembrandt Harmenszoon Van Rijn)

http://www.ibiblio.org/wm/paint/auth/rembrandt/1630/nicolaes-tulp.jpg

 

Thomas Eakins. The Gross Clinic (1875)

http://www.philamuseum.org/collections/permanent/299524.html

Optional background reading: http://www.pafa.org/museum/Research-Archives/Thomas-Eakins/The-Gross-Clinic/80/

 

Now look at Thomas Eakins. The Agnew Clinic (1889) and compare with The Gross Clinic

http://www.artchive.com/artchive/E/eakins/eakins_agnew.jpg.html

Optional background reading: Ahttp://www.archives.upenn.edu/histy/features/1800s/1889med/agnewclinic.html

 

Pablo Picasso. Science and Charity (1897)

http://www.bcn.cat/museupicasso/en/collection/mpb110-046.html

Optional reading at this site.

 

Sir Luke Fildes. The Doctor (1891)

http://www.tate.org.uk/art/artworks/fildes-the-doctor-n01522

Optional reading:A http://www.cwru.edu/artsci/dittrick/museum/collections/The-doctor.html

 

Norman Rockwell. Doctor and Doll. Saturday Evening Post cover March 9, 1929.

http://store.nrm.org/page.htm?PG=BIGIMAGE&ID=3579&PIC=GDS60820-C.jpg

Optional other images: http://www.nrm.org

 

Francisco Goya. Of What Will He Die? (1796-97)

http://www.metmuseum.org/Collections/search-the-collections/378024?rpp=20&pg=1&ft=De+Que+Mal+Morira%3f+&pos=1

Read about the work: http://litmed.med.nyu.edu/Annotation?action=view&annid=10319

Francisco Goya. Self-portrait with Dr. ArrietaA (1820)

https://collections.artsmia.org/index.php?page=detail&id=1226A Read about the work here.

 

The Experience of Illness and Disability

 

Robert Pope. Self-portrait with Dr. Langley (1990)

http://robertpopefoundation.com/about-robert-pope/books-articles-and-documentary/

Robert Pope. Illness and Healing: Images of Cancer (Hantsport, Nova Scotia: Lancelot Press, 1991, 1995)

Read about Robert Pope and the book: http://litmed.med.nyu.edu/Annotation?action=view&annid=10390

Browse book and select several images that catch your attention.

 

George Tooker. Waiting Room (1959)

http://americanart.si.edu/images/1969/1969.47.43_1a.jpg

 

Optional reading about George Tooker, and if interested, view other images by him at:

http://www.dcmooregallery.com/artists/george-tooker#4

 

Edvard Munch. Read about his early life (handout):

"Childhood and Adolescence of Edvard Munch". Judith M. Stillion. In Grief and the Healing Arts. Ed. Sandra L. Bertman (Amityville, NY: Baywood Publihing) 1999. pp 291-295.

 

Then view and take notes on these paintings:

 

Edvard Munch. Death in the Sickroom (1893)

http://www.ibiblio.org/wm/paint/auth/munch/munch.death-sickroom.jpg

 

Edvard Munch. The Dead Mother (1899-1900)

http://www.ibiblio.org/wm/paint/auth/munch/munch.dead-mother.jpg

 

Edvard Munch. The Sick Child (1885-1886)

http://www.tate.org.uk/art/artworks/munch-the-sick-child-n05035

 

Dierdre Scherer. Surrounded by Family and Friends (2000?):

http://dscherer.com/portfolios/surrounded-by-family-and-friends/

Compare the people in these fabric and thread images with those in Munch’s work.

And with:

Jean Baptiste Greuze. The Paralytic A(1763)

http://www.ibiblio.org/wm/paint/auth/greuze/paralytic.jpg

Optional reading: http://litmed.med.nyu.edu/Annotation?action=view&annid=10368

 

Epileptic. David B. (New York: Pantheon) 2005. Excerpts (handout)

This is a graphic memoir by the younger brother of a boy who had lifelong severe epilepsy.

What are some of the recurrent images in these excerpts and what do they represent?

After you have made your notes, you might be interested in:

http://content.time.com/time/arts/article/0,8599,1015442,00.html

http://litmed.med.nyu.edu/Annotation?action=view&annid=12865

 

 

Wednesday, Feb. 12

The Experience of Illness and Disability (cont’d)

 

Frida Kahlo. Read excerpts about this Mexican artist (handouts):

pages 3, 4 from Frida Kahlo: The Paintings. Hayden Herrera. (New York: Perennial) 2002

pages 96-99 and pages 101-104 from Imaging Herselves: Frida Kahlo’s Poetics of Identity and Fragmentation. Gannit Ankori. (Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press) 2002

 

Then view and take notes on (4 paintings):

Henry Ford Hospital (1932)A http://www.wikipaintings.org/en/frida-kahlo/henry-ford-hospital-the-flying-bed-1932

 

The Broken Column (1944)

http://www.frida-kahlo-foundation.org/The-Broken-Column.html

 

Without Hope (1945)

http://www.frida-kahlo-foundation.org/Without-Hope.html

 

Tree of Hope (1946)

http://www.wikipaintings.org/en/frida-kahlo/tree-of-hope-remain-strong-1946

Optional other images: http://www.frida-kahlo-foundation.org/

 

Representations of the Body

 

Alice Neel. Self-Portrait (1980)

http://www.aliceneel.com/gallery/?mode=display&decade=8&painting=80

 

Optional: extensive website of Neel’s work and biography. http://www.aliceneel.com/home/

 

Read excerpts from Chapters 2 and 3 of Susan Wendell’s book, The Rejected Body: Feminist Philosophical Reflections on Disability (New York: Routledge) 1996 (handout)

 

Chapter 2. The Social Construction of Disability (pp 36 through 51)

How is disability socially constructed, according to the author?A How can disability be "deconstructed"?

Chapter 3.A Disability as Difference (pp 60 through 69 and pp 81 through 84)

How does the author challenge some medical practice and society’s thinking about "otherness" and disability?

 

Laura Ferguson. Artist in Residence, NYUSOM

Stretching/kneeling figure with visible skeleton

http://medhum.med.nyu.edu/blog/?p=63. Read the blog, "Toward a New Aesthetic of the Body.

 

Laura Ferguson. Crouching figure with visible skeleton

leftmost column, #2 down:A http://www.lauraferguson.net/visible-skeleton-gallery/

 

Matuschka. Beauty Out of Damage (1993)

Artist/Photographer/Model Matuschka was featured on the cover of the Sunday New York Times Magazine section with the mastectomy scars of one breast completely exposed. (August 15, 1993)

www.songster.net/projects/matuschka/matuschka_beauty.html

http://www.beautyoutofdamage.com/index.html

 

Marc Quinn. Alison Lapper Pregnant (2005-2007) 15 ton white marble sculpture on the Northwest corner of Trafalgar Square in London. The subject, artist Alison Lapper, was born with phocomelia-severely shortened limbs.

http://www.telegraph.co.uk/culture/culturepicturegalleries/4838785/Trafalgar-Squares-Fourth-Plinth.html

 

Optional reading: http://litmed.med.nyu.edu/Annotation?action=view&annid=10408

 

Frank Moore. Frank Moore died of AIDS in 2002,A aged 48.

Lullaby (1997):

http://www.nytimes.com/2012/09/07/arts/design/toxic-beauty-the-art-of-frank-moore-at-nyu.html?pagewanted=all

(Also, you may want to read the above article)

Patient (1997-1998):: https://www.nyu.edu/greyart/press/Frank%20Moore%20press%20release%20062912.pdf

 

Optional additional images: http://www.visualaids.org/artists/detail/frank-moore

 

Sue Coe. The Last 11 Days (1995) charcoal drawings of the artist’s mother dying in hospice and at home. They were made for herself, not for display or sale. 2 images at:

http://katthorsen.com/2012/03/18/weekly-artist-series-week-9-part-2-sue-coe-a-mother-dying/

 

Optional (Sue Coe bio plus more images from this series): http://clara.nmwa.org/index.php?g=entity_detail_print&entity_id=1774

 

Ferdinand Hodler. The Dying Valentine Gode-DarelA (1914-1915) Read and review images in the online article, "Looking at the Dying Patient: The Ferdinand Hodler Paintings of Valentine Gode-Darel" by Bernhard C. Pestalozzi: ttp://jco.ascopubs.org/content/20/7/1948.full

 

 

Friday, Feb. 14

Medicine and Society

Remember that we will discuss the graphic memoir, Stitches today, at the end.

 

Wars

Goya was the first artist of the modern era to record the fallout of war, in his etching series "The Disasters of War" (1810-1820). The war in question was the Peninsular War (1808-1814)-The Spanish revolt against Napoleon’s invasion of Spain that began with Napoleon replacing the Spanish king with his (Napoleon’s) brother.

 

Goya. They Escape Through the Flames

http://www.richardharrisartcollection.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/03/LI-Goya-plate41b.jpg

 

Goya. And They Are Like Wild Beasts

http://www.richardharrisartcollection.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/03/LI-Goya-plate5b.jpg

 

If interested, the other etchings in the series are online at The Richard Harris Collection:

http://www.richardharrisartcollection.com/portfolio-view/francisco-goya-2/

 

American Civil War PhotographsA Athe beginning of photojournalism:

Timothy O’Sullivan. Field Where General Reynolds Fell, Gettysburg A(1863)

http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/works-of-art/2005.100.502.1

 

McPherson & Oliver. Private Gordon, copied by Mathew Brady. The Scourged Back (1863)

http://abhmuseum.org/2013/07/the-scourged-back-how-runaway-slave-and-soldier-private-gordon-changed-history/

Optional: http://www.civilwarphotos.net/

 

Vietnam War PhotosA had an impact on American public opinion of the war.

AP photographer Nick Ut. Napalm Girl (1972)

http://abcnews.go.com/blogs/headlines/2012/06/the-historic-napalm-girl-pulitzer-image-marks-its-40th-anniversary/

 

If interested, other important Vietnam War photos are at:

http://www.nytimes.com/2013/09/05/arts/design/images-of-the-vietnam-war-that-defined-an-era.html?_r=0&adxnnl=1&pagewanted=all&adxnnlx=1378925895-CjQSNKVC3r63lV319pm/Q

 

Depression Era Photographs

 

Walker Evans, documented the effects of the Great Depression. Working for the U.S. Farm Security Administration, he photographed Alabama sharecroppers (1935-1936) and other southern farmers living in poverty.

 

Alabama sharecropper family

http://oscarenfotos.files.wordpress.com/2012/06/walker_evans_fsa2.jpg

 

Allie Mae Burroughs, wife of Alabama sharecropper (1936)

http://www.metmuseum.org/collections/search-the-collections/275876

 

Civil Rights Photos

The photos below are among "iconic" images of the struggle for African-American civil rights,A rousing public opinion and eventuating in the Civil Rights Act of 1964.

 

May 3, 1963.Birmingham, Alabama.

Police Dog Attack. Photo by Bill Hudson of the Associated Press.

Fire-hoses againstA black persons. Photo by Charles Moore

http://www.bhamwiki.com/w/Police_dogs_and_fire_hoses

 

Images of AIDS in the 1980s and early 1990s

 

Billy Howard. Epitaphs for the Living: Words and Images in the Time of AIDS A(Dallas: Southern Methodist University Press) 1989

http://www.billyhoward.com/books/epitaphs1.htm

The subject writes: ""Looking at myself, and realizing how ship wrecked I look, brings a well known poem into my mind.

‘The world is such a nice place to live in / and it is such a pity to leave it.’ "

 

Rosalind Solomon. Portraits in the Time of AIDS .(New York: Grey Art Gallery) 1988

Focus on one or two images at:

http://www.rosalindsolomon.com/images/portraits-in-the-time-of-aids-1988/#!prettyPhoto

 

Optional: a current view of Solomon’s AIDS images:

http://www.nytimes.com/2013/07/19/arts/design/rosalind-solomon-portraits-in-the-time-of-aids-1988.html

 

Frank Moore. Arena (1992)

http://www.brooklynrail.org/2012/10/artseen/frank-moore-toxic-beauty